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Advanced Design System 2009 Crack
And the crack work is just commencing. We have just begun a series of fracture and crack experiments to determine the best crack material combinations that generate the fastest crack speeds. The goal is to have the crack idea utilized in the other reference systems, which will be a significant contribution to the overall success of the project. One of the few ways that problems related to composite material cracking can be solved is by figuring out how the composite material cracks. Understanding how material cracks form in composites can lead to new composite manufacturing methods and to understanding how cracks propagate in materials which will lead to improved material design. There are a number of techniques that have been used to crack composite materials, including ultrasonic welding, explosive detonation and controlled explosively formed penetrator (EFP) welding. Ultrasonic welding, explosive detonation and EFP welding all destroy a portion of the material and therefore cannot be used on residual material. Controlled explosively formed penetrator (EFP) welding, however, is a cold welding process that produces a fast, high-velocity crack. The high-velocity crack will penetrate the material to a depth determined by the maximum stress required to drive it.
The PLM is essential for encapsulating the reflective film within the PDMS mold and thus preventing the PDMS from flowing into the cracks formed as the PVA/TiO2 film is stretched. To mitigate the manufacturing cost, we tried to use inexpensive cotton mesh as the PLM. The holes of the cotton mesh are circular in shape. When they are filled by PDMS, it tends to form a concave profile, which lowers the contact area of the PVA/TiO2 film and the PDMS layer and thus reduces the adhesion of these two layers. The circular holes of the mesh can mitigate this problem. However, the irregular profile of the mesh can lead to uneven adhesion, which could cause more cracks. In this work, we present an alternative PLM using cylindrical cavities of a PVA/TiO2 solution as the gel filtration (GF) column. In such system, the porous cylindrical tube serves as a barrier between the PDMS and the PVA/TiO2 solution and the casting of PDMS can be easily controlled. The porous nature of the tube allows PDMS to infiltrate into its interior space. Furthermore, the porosity of the device can be tuned to provide different permeability to the PDMS. Thus, the effectiveness of such porous device can be easily controlled by adjusting the pore size as well as the number of columns.
the moose framework is not limited to the above application classes. on the other hand, it is not necessarily the goal of the project to attempt to provide a complete solution for any particular type of problem. consequently, the class hierarchy is designed to be extremely flexible, and applications can easily be written to solve completely new classes of problems. the moose framework supports this approach by providing a simple application programming interface (api) that allows applications to access and solve the models in an efficient and easy manner.
perhaps the most important aspect of the moose development is the flexibility of the frameworks. moose applications can be written in an object-oriented programming environment that supports a very high degree of programmer control. the framework is well suited for the rapid prototyping of new models and application classes, and allows any developer to create any model. moose applications can be written in c++ using standard classes provided by the framework, which provides the flexibility to use any of the libraries that are available for c++ programming. as such, moose applications are not tied to any particular library. any of the libraries that are supported by the framework can be used to create moose applications. the framework is designed to allow moose applications to be platform-independent so that they can be used on any operating system (windows, linux, and unix).
the moose framework is a collection of classes that provide the fundamental building blocks of any model. these classes provide a standard interface to the underlying solvers, and provide the basic configuration of the problems that can be solved by moose. this enables application developers to create a model that is able to solve the problem at hand. each of these models is organized in a hierarchical class structure that has the same layout as the original physical model. in this way, once the developers know how a model is organized, they can use it in any way that they like. moose applications can be written in a standard c++ or fortran environment, and can be written in a parallel programming environment such as intel’s threading building blocks library. the framework also uses stl classes, and as such, applications can be easily written using the standard c++ libraries. the framework has been carefully designed so that it will be accessible to a wide range of users, from novices to experts. the framework allows the novice to create new models simply by writing some c++ code, and it allows the expert to create advanced models by writing a few additional lines of code. in either case, the interface to the framework is very simple, and application developers are able to concentrate on the problem, rather than the implementation details of the framework.